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National Education Policy launches credit-based flexible courses for students, to reduce dropouts

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After the first year of a UG degree, a certificate will be awarded. On completion of the second year, a diploma will be awarded while the three-year program completion will lead to a Bachelor's Degree.


Imagine this situation. A student realizes that he/she does not have the aptitude/interest in the engineering course they have enrolled into. Leaving midway would mean that they lose an entire year, including fees and academics. So, what is the alternative?

Rather than dropping out of the course, this student can now store credits earned in the year into an 'Academic Bank', and join any other program within seven years.

Lateral entry and exit from higher educational programs was a long-standing demand in India. As part of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, the government has now allowed this formally.

The NEP 2020 completed one year on July 29. On this occasion, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) that will facilitate multiple entry/exit into courses.

To enable this, the University Grants Commission (Establishment and Operation of Academic Bank Of Credits in Higher Education) Regulations, 2021, have been notified. These guidelines will govern the entry and exit into all universities (including the deemed-to-be category) and autonomous colleges.

This will be applicable from the academic year 2021-22. So credits earned from this year onwards can be stored digitally.

Here is a look at how the new ABC system will work:

What is the credit system in a college education?

The regulations state 'credit' means the standard methodology for calculating one hour of theory or one hour of tutorial or two hours of laboratory work per week for a semester (13-15 weeks).

This leads to the award of one credit by the educational institution. In addition, credits for the internship will be one per week of internship, subject to a maximum of six credits. These credits are stored digitally using DigiLocker.

Where will these credits be stored?

The credits will be stored in an ABC or Academic Bank Account. This is similar to a regular savings bank account which an individual student can operate.

Once this account is opened, all academic credits will be deposited into it. These credits will be required to award degrees, diplomas, or certificates on completion of an academic course. Each student can store these credits for a maximum of seven years.

If a student switches from one course to another within the recognized universities/colleges under UGC, the credits in the academic bank can be redeemed.

But remember that your university/college has to first get registered with the UGC for enrolling into ABC. Students shall be required to earn at least 50 percent credits from the parent institution, where he/she is enrolled for a program.

Are all students eligible to enroll in this academic bank?

No. Eligible institutes are universities and autonomous colleges accredited by either the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) with minimum ‘A’ grade, or by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) for at least three program (s) with a minimum score of 675 individually.

However, if the number of program (s) being run by the institution is less than three, 675 or more marks should be secured in each of the programs.

An alternative is that they should be among the top 100 National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF). Similarly, Indian Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs), appearing in the top 1,000 world ranking of Quacquarelli Symons (QS)/ Times Higher Education (THE), or are declared Institutions of Eminence (IoE), are also eligible.

How does the credit system work?

There are five levels -- Level 5 to Level 10. After the completion of each level, which is typically two semesters, a student is eligible to get either a certificate, diploma, or degree.

For entry into level 5, the eligibility is a school leaving certificate after the completion of Class 12. Over and above this are the entry requirements specific to each university/HEI.

Once a student completes the first year in college with 36-40 credits, he/she is awarded a certificate.

Credit

In case he/she decides to exit the program, the ABC will store these credits that can be redeemed for rejoining this course or an allied course within seven years.

If the student continues to the second year and completes it with 72-80 credits, a diploma is awarded. Similar to the first year, he/she can exit at this stage with a diploma and can rejoin within seven years after redeeming the credits.

Once a student completes the third year of a UG degree program, he/she will be awarded a Bachelor's Degree. Here, 108-120 credits are required.

When it comes to the Master's level, a student can exit after one year, with a one-year diploma. Completion of the full two-year program will lead to a Master's Degree.

Over and above this is the doctoral degree for which the course work and the thesis will determine its completion. The MPhil program has been done away with.

Can anyone enter courses laterally?

While the ABC will store credits for a maximum duration of seven years, he will have to frame rules for lateral entry. This means that the entry of students directly into the second/third year of a course will depend on the rules set by each HEI.

Here, students who have pursued allied courses will be allowed lateral entry. So if you are an English literature student who wants to switch to engineering in the second/third year, that wouldn't be possible.

Also, the UGC guidelines have stated that a student can only enter at odd semesters and exit at even semesters. This means that you cannot enter/exit a program in the middle of an academic year and should have completed at least two semesters.

A similar glide path will be followed for entry/exit in the vocational education field as well.

Share Market Closing Note

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Share Market Closing Bell! Sensex, Nifty end on a positive note | Zee  Business

The market broke the three-day losing streak and ended higher with Nifty above 15,750 supported by the IT, metal, financial stocks.

At close, the Sensex was up 209.36 points or 0.40% at 52653.07, and the Nifty was up 69.10 points or 0.44% at 15778.50. About 1781 shares have advanced, 1170 shares declined, and 109 shares are unchanged.

Among sectors, the metal index gained 5, while IT, PSU Bank, and realty indices rose 1-3 percent. However, the FMCG index was down 1 percent. BSE midcap and smallcap indices rose 0.4-0.9 percent.

Hindalco, Tata Steel, Bajaj Finserv, SBI, and JSW Steel were the top Nifty losers. Maruti Suzuki, Power Grid Corp, Bajaj Auto, ITC, and Coal India were among the top losers.

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Topic :- Time:3.00 PM

Nifty spot if manages to close above 15800 levels then expect some further up move in the market and if it breaks and closes below the above-mentioned level then some sluggish movement can be seen.

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Topic :- Time:2.30PM

COPPER Trading View:

COPPER is trading at 757.50. If it manages to trade and sustain above 758 level then expect some quick upmove and if it breaks and trades below 756.80 level then some decline can follow in the market.


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Topic :- Time:2.00 PM

Nifty spot if manages to trade and sustain above 15820 levels then expect some quick upmove and if it breaks and trades below 15780 levels then some decline can follow in the market.

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Topic :- Time:1.30 PM


GOLD Trading view:

GOLD is trading at 47950. If it manages to trade and sustain above 48000 levels then expect some quick upmove and if it breaks and trades below 47900 levels then some decline can be seen in it.

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Topic :- Time:1.10 PM

Nifty spot if manages to trade and sustain above 15820 levels then expect some further up move in the market and if it breaks and trades below 15760 levels then some decline can follow in the Nifty.

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Topic :- Time:11.30 AM

News Wrap Up:

1. Sensex climbs 250 pts; Nifty Metal index hits new record high

2. Tata Sons subsidiary to buy 43.3% stake in Tejas Networks for Rs 1,850 cr

3. Covid-19 in numbers Cases 31,528,114 | Deaths 422,662 | Vaccination 450,706,257

4. Airtel raises minimum prepaid plan to Rs 79, offers more usage time

5. Tatva Chintan makes solid debut; lists at 95% premium over issue price

6. Robinhood banks on its trader's allegiance in IPO like no other

7. Sebi revising risk management framework for MFs: Official

8. Retail loans, long a safe bet for many banks, show an uptick in defaults


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Topic :- Time:11.00 AM

Nifty is cruising high. Nifty spot if manages to trade and sustain above 15800 levels then expect some further upmove and if it breaks and trades below 15760 levels then some decline can be seen in the market.

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Topic:- Nifty Opening Note


Indian Stock Market Trading View For Today:

Stock-specific action is expected in the market. Nifty to trade volatile as the day progresses.

Nifty spot if manages to trade and sustain above 15740 levels then expect some up move in the market and if it breaks and trades below 15680 levels then some profit booking can follow in the market.

Please note this is just an opening view and should not be considered as the view for the whole day.

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India's gold demand up 19% in April-June quarter at 76 tonne: WGC

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The overall gold demand during the second quarter of 2020 calendar year stood at 63.8 tonnes, according to the WGC's "Gold Demand Trends Q2 2021" report.

Representative image (Source: Shutterstock)


India's gold demand increased by 19.2 percent to 76.1 tonne during the April-June quarter this year, largely due to low base effect, owing to the nationwide lockdown that hit economic activity last year, the World Gold Council (WGC) said in a report.

The overall gold demand during the second quarter of the 2020 calendar year stood at 63.8 tonnes, according to the WGC's "Gold Demand Trends Q2 2021" report.

In value terms, India's gold demand witnessed 23 percent growth during the April-June quarter at Rs 32,810 crore, compared to Rs 26,600 crore during the corresponding period of 2020.

However, demand plunged 46 percent quarter-on-quarter as the second wave of COVID-19 hit the nation, according to the report.

"Demand in H1 totaled 157.6 tonnes, which was 46 percent below H1 2019, and 39 percent lower than the H1 average from 2015-2019," the WGC data stated.

"The second quarter of 2021 was marked by widespread regional lockdowns following a rise in COVID infections. Unlike the previous year when a national lockdown took businesses by surprise, this quarter was relatively better as businesses were more prepared.

"Demand in Q2 2021, showed a 19.2 percent year-on-year increase on a very low base of Q2' 2020, the impact was, however, severe as it muted demand during Akshaya Tritiya and wedding season in Q2," WGC Regional CEO, India, Somasundaram PR told PTI.

Total jewelry demand during the second quarter was up by 25 percent at 55.1 tonnes, compared to 44 tonnes in the same quarter last year, the report said.

In value terms, jewelry demand was up by 29 percent at Rs 23,750 crores compared to Rs 18,350 crore in the corresponding period last year.

Total investment demand during the second quarter increased by 6 percent in the country at 21 tonnes in comparison with 19.8 tonnes during April-June 2020.

Gold Investment demand in value terms went up by 10 percent at Rs 9,060 crore, against Rs 8,250 crore in the same quarter of 2020.

Total gold recycled in India during the second quarter was 19.7 tonnes compared to 13.8 tonnes in April-June 2020, an increase of 43 percent.

Gold imports in India surged to 120.4 tonnes during the April-June quarter, as compared to 10.9 tonnes in Q2 2020, according to the WGC data.

Somasundaram further noted that the digital solutions and pause in restrictions in some pockets helped the growth of 25 percent in jewelry demand, to 55.1 tonnes.

"Investment demand grew 6 percent to 21 tonnes as prices softened. Interestingly, imports surged to 120.4 tonnes in anticipation of pick up in fabrication. Overall, gold demand in India in H1 2021 was 216.1 tonnes, up 30 percent versus H1 2020," he added.

Though it is still a multi-year low, it reflects an underlying demand momentum that will likely support a sharp spike in demand once normalcy is restored on the COVID front, he opined.

Going forward, he said, demand is expected to come back in a big way, however, the consumer confidence and business response are subject to the impact of a looming threat of the third wave of COVID and the pace of economic recovery.

"One view, most comforting, is that given the pace of vaccination and the serosurvey results, as a society, we may learn to live with COVID and its variants, ensuring businesses and sales become more resilient," he pointed out.

Dhanteras and the upcoming season, which has more auspicious wedding days in Q4 2021, compared to the previous year appear positive for demand, said Somasundaram."For the gold investment segment, however, attractive equity markets and volatile gold prices are strong headwinds. Consumer behavior is linked to several economic and non-economic variables that pose great difficulty in making any forecast of full-year gold demand in India," he added.

National Education Policy: One year of steady reforms, a few more miles to go

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India finished 365 days of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 on July 29. The coverage changed into revised after 34 years to satisfy the converting wishes of Indian and global training standards.

Image: Pixabay


A lot has been modified in 365 days. Curricula had been tweaked in colleges to encompass topics that include economic literacy and synthetic intelligence.

When it involves the medium of coaching in colleges and schools, the mom tongue or a local language has been delivered on a pilot foundation. This applies even to engineering guides and some institutes had been selected to enforce this initiative withinside the 2021-22 instructional 12 months.

The number one goal of NEP 2020 changed into lessening undue attention at Class 10 and Class 12 board tests. Consequently, board tests administered with the aid of using the Central Board of Secondary Education could have a better wide variety of a couple of-desire and analytical questions from 2022. The authorities will launch an in depth coverage framework at the adjustments in board tests with the aid of using the cease of this 12 months, human beings aware about the problem informed Moneycontrol.

With holistic training one of the key dreams of NEP 2020, multidisciplinary streams have began out throughout institutes. This approach that engineering schools will now no longer best provide technical guides however additionally trade and humanity topics.

While there’s been great development on curriculum adjustments and the advent of local languages, a few key reforms are pending and that they encompass the bendy access and go out for university college students and permitting global institutes to installation campuses in India.

Multidisciplinary training

NEP 2020 envisaged a gadget wherein colleges and better training institutes could permit college students to choose and pick topics primarily based totally on their pastimes and aptitude. This approach an engineering pupil need to additionally be capable of examine economics or layout withinside the identical institute. Moneycontrol has mentioned how the Indian Institutes of Technology, the u . s .’s pinnacle engineering collages, are trying to begin guides along with economics, layout, music, enterprise administration, linguistics and literature.

The training ministry has requested all better training institutes to provide a big range of guides throughout streams so that you can have a numerous pupil population. IIT Bombay, IIT Delhi, IIT Madras and IIT Roorkee are amongst many such institutes that provide guides past conventional engineering.

In colleges as well, topics which include economic literacy, statistics technological know-how and synthetic intelligence may be provided to college students on an non-compulsory foundation. As a part of this initiative, CBSE has tied up with Microsoft to assist Class VI-VIII college students paintings on coding-associated modules beginning withinside the 2021-22 instructional 12 months.

“Since early-age skilling is being released from the 6th grade, it's far important that topics like statistics technological know-how are made a part of the curriculum. Initially, we are able to employ part-time visitor instructors however because the numbers choose up, full-time body of workers may be appointed,” stated Seema Chawla, vice-fundamental of New Blossom High School in Punjab’s Gurdaspur.

According to a UNICEF report, India’s training gadget is one in every of the biggest withinside the world, with greater than 1.five million colleges, 8.five million instructors and 250 million youngsters from various socio-monetary backgrounds.


Online diploma guides

NEP 2020 lets in the pinnacle a hundred universities in India to provide on-line diploma guides to lead them to less costly and enhance accessibility. Following this, on-line structures are presenting various guides in partnership with institutes.

Last 12 months, upgrade introduced e-diploma guides along with Bachelor of Business Administration, Master of Computer Applications and Master of Business Administration with Jamia Hamdard in New Delhi and a one-12 months diploma in company and economic regulation and a -12 months MBA in virtual finance and banking with OP Jindal Global University.

Edtech corporation Great Learning is presenting MBA, MCA, and BBA guides in partnership with JAIN (Deemed-to-be University) and an MBA with Shiv Nadar University.

Imarticus Learning has released a web BBA diploma path in banking and finance with Bengaluru-primarily based totally JAIN (Deemed-to-be University).

Emphasis on local languages

A key element of NEP 2020 changed into the merchandising of all reputable languages of India, aside from English. It changed into advised that colleges and better training institutes deliver college students the choice to examine of their mom tongues. A few hundred colleges withinside the u . s . at the moment are presenting this feature on a pilot foundation. The translation of books is beneathneath manner.

Education minister Dharmendra Pradhan stated on July 26 that technical training may be provided in 8 local languages in positive establishments on a pilot foundation from 2021-22. The local languages are Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Marathi, Gujarati, Kannada and Malayalam.

At the faculty level, step one may be to spend money on instructors who can communicate a couple of languages. Currently, broadly speaking instructors communicate English, a local language and/or Hindi. Under NEP 2020, colleges and schools have to teach instructors in extra languages or rent greater body of workers.

RK Gupta, fundamental of Kolkata-primarily based totally Aim High School, stated this may be a further expense. He stated a selection on hiring new instructors and translating instructional content material may be taken in 2022, relying on what number of college students need to examine in local languages.

The training ministry has knowledgeable colleges and better training institutes that local language-primarily based totally curriculum may be non-compulsory. However, it reiterated that no pupil may be denied access to a path best due to the fact he/she isn't fluent in English.


What’s withinside the pipeline?

A primary alternate proposed withinside the training coverage is permitting overseas universities to installation campuses in India and giving entire access-go out flexibility for guides taken with the aid of using university/college college students.

Some early paintings has began out in this front. Flexible access and go out offers instructional credit score for in part finished guides. A pupil who quits a diploma path after 365 days receives a certificate. A degree is earned after  years and a diploma after 3/4 years.

IIT Madras has released a web Bachelor of Science path in programming and statistics technological know-how that gives the ability of having a diploma or a degree. A pupil have to entire all 3 degrees to get a BSc Degree withinside the path.

On the access of distant places academic institutes, rules to permit overseas institutes to open campuses is but to be passed. So far, international institutes needed to tie up with a neighborhood companion to installation an India campus.

Close to 200,000 college students tour overseas each 12 months for better training, ensuing in an outflow of just about Rs 50,000 ($6.7 billion) crore each 12 months.


The manner forward

As mentioned with the aid of using Moneycontrol earlier, the authorities needs NEP 2020 to be carried out on the quick music throughout states, paving the manner for a much broader desire of topics in better academic institutes, putting in training complexes and permitting bendy access-go out schemes in schools and universities as a part of the primary phase.

Education minister Pradhan has recommended nation establishments, along with schools and universities, to enforce the coverage withinside the cutting-edge instructional 12 months.

The ministry is likewise putting in a committee so that it will be headed with the aid of using better training branch officials, whose quick it'll be to screen the development of the 181 tasks.


Share Market Closing Note

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Benchmark indices erased most of the intraday losses but ended lower in the volatile session on July 28.

At close, the Sensex was down 135.05 points or 0.26% at 52,443.71, and the Nifty was down 37.10 points or 0.24% at 15,709.40. About 1299 shares have advanced, 1682 shares declined, and 90 shares are unchanged.

Among sectors, except metal index added over 1 percent and IT index rose 0.2 percent, however, selling was seen in the auto, bank, energy, and pharma sectors.

BSE midcap index ended flat, while smallcap index fell 0.4 percent.

Also Read: How to earn money in share market


Dr. Reddys Labs, Kotak Mahindra Bank, Tata Motors, Cipla, and M&M were the top Nifty losers. Bharti Airtel, Tata Steel, SBI Life Insurance, Divis Labs, and IndusInd Bank were among the top gainers.

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Topic :- Time:3.00 PM

Nifty spot if holds above 15700 levels on closing basis then expect some further up move incoming session and if it closes below above-mentioned level then some sluggish movement can be seen. Avoid short positions and stay long in the market.

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Topic :- Time:2.30 PM

GOLD Trading View:

GOLD is trading at 47552. If it breaks and trades below the 47500 levels then expect some further decline in it and if it manages to trade and sustain above the 47580 levels then some upmove can follow in GOLD.

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Topic :- Time:2.25 PM

Just In:

Ola expands ESOP pool to Rs 3,000 crore, allots additional Rs 400 crore worth of stocks to employees ahead of IPO.

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Topic :- Time:2.10 PM

Nifty spot if manages to trade and sustain above 15720 levels then expect some further upmove and if it breaks and trades below 15640 levels then some decline can follow in the market. Since Monday we are mentioning use all lows as an opportunity to go long in the market as Nifty is heading for the 16000 marks.

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Topic :- Time:1.00 PM

Just In:

SEBI committee deliberating if SPACs should be introduced in India: SEBI Chairman Ajay Tyagi.

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Topic :- Time:1.00 PM

Nifty is showing some good recovery. Nifty spot if manages to trade and sustain above 15660 levels then expect some quick upmove and if it breaks and trades below 15640 levels then some decline can be seen in the market.

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Topic :- Time:12.30 PM

COPPER Trading View:

COPPER is trading at 757.45. If it breaks and trades below the 757 level then expect some decline in it and if it manages to trade and sustain above the 757.90 level then some upmove can follow in it.

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Topic :- Time:12.15 PM

Just In:

Rolex Rings IPO fully subscribed on Day 1, retail portion booked 2.22 times.

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Topic :- Time:12.00 PM

After a gap down nifty is filling the gap now. The decline should be used as an opportunity to go long in the market. Nifty spot if manages to trade and sustain above 15620 levels then expect some quick upmove and if it breaks and trades below 15600 levels then some fall can follow in the Nifty.

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Topic :- Time:11.30 AM

News Wrap Up:

1. Indices off lows; Sensex down 500 pts, Nifty near 15,600

2. 4 funds invested in Adani firms have a history of bets gone wrong

3. Sebi asks for ultimate beneficial owners information in Adani firms

4. Bitcoin tops $40,000 as traders get a boost from high-profile investors

5. Dr. Reddys extends fall on disappointing Q1; stock down 14% in 2 days

6. UTI AMC hits new high ahead of results, rallies 111% from October lows

7. Maruti Suzukis Q1 PAT may slip up to 32% QoQ, say analysts

8.  Retail rush drives mobile trading volumes at BSE


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Topic:- Nifty Opening Note

Indian Stock Market Trading View For Today:

Stock-specific action is expected in the market. Nifty to trade volatile as the day progresses.


Nifty spot if manages to trade and sustain above 15780 levels then expect some up move in the market and if it breaks and trade below 15700 levels then some profit booking can follow in the market.


Please note this is just an opening view and should not be considered as the view for the whole day.

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The Ramco Cements shares fall 3% after missing estimates, global brokerage downgrades stock to 'underperform'

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Global research firm CLSA has downgraded the stock to underperform from outperform and has cut the target to Rs 1,060 from Rs 1,140 per share while Prabhudas Lilladher has maintained reduce on the stock with a target of Rs 980.

The Ramco Cements share price was down over 3 percent within the morning session on July 28, each day after the corporate declared its June quarter results.

The cement maker on July 27 reported a 46.10 percent increase in consolidated net income at Rs 171.67 crore for the quarter ended June, helped by growth in sales. It had posted a net income of Rs 117.50 crore during the April-June period of the previous fiscal, it said during a regulatory filing.

Total income was up 17.33 percent to 1,239.99 crores during the quarter under review as against Rs 1,056.79 crore within the corresponding period of the previous fiscal.

Total expenses were at Rs 988.46 crore in Q1 FY 2021-22, up 9.91 percent from Rs 899.29 crore earlier.

The stock was trading at Rs 1,027.65, down Rs 32.55, or 3.07 percent at 09:54 hours. it's touched an intraday high of Rs 1,069.45 and an intraday low of Rs 1,024.20.

Global research firm CLSA has downgraded the stock to underperform from outperform and has cut the target to Rs 1,060 from Rs 1,140 per share. it's of the view that Q1 EBITDA was largely in-line while volumes fell 33 percent QoQ.

EBITDA was also in-line with lower volumes offset by higher realizations adding that weak volume attributed to state-specific lockdowns, consistent with a CNBC-TV18 report.

"We expect FY22 volume growth of 12% YoY and EBITDA per tonne of Rs 1,470. We await a pick-up in volume growth before turning constructive with volume growth remaining elusive," it said.

Catch all the market action on our live blog

According to domestic research firm Prabhudas Lilladher, The Ramco Cements reported Q1FY22 EBITDA below its/consensus estimate. The miss came on all counts except in-line realizations.

"We remain negative on Southern region thanks to overcapacity and volatile demand pattern. As demand outlook improves for the region in H2, volume growth would come at the value of weaker margins thanks to rise in competition for market share and low capacity utilization," it said.

"Due to expensive valuations and weak outlook on southern region, we maintain reduce on the stock with a target of Rs 980 (earlier Rs 950), EV/EBITDA of 14x FY23E," it added.



30 Years Of Reforms | The gap between aspirations and reality

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In 1991, Manmohan Singh spoke of the need to increase the efficiency and international competitiveness of industrial production of domestic entities, as did his successors, but there was little government support that was crucial for realizing this objective.


n his first Budget Speech on July 24, 1991, then Finance Minister Manmohan Singh effectively laid the foundations of India’s trade and investment liberalization agenda. Providing a strong rationale for the government’s decision to embrace an open-door policy, Singh argued, “time has come to expose Indian industry to competition from abroad in a phased manner”.

For the PV Narasimha Rao government, ushering in the policy of trade liberalization was clearly one of its priorities. Within a month of its taking over, the Finance Minister announced in Parliament that the government had “introduced changes in import-export policy, aimed at a reduction of import licensing, vigorous export promotion and optimal import compression”.

The pathway chosen by the government had its strong advocates. In an oft-quoted paper, Michael Lipton and Jeffrey Sachs had argued that free trade instantly brings to bear on domestic firms the competition of the rest of the world, which almost resonated with Singh’s arguments. Lipton-Sachs’ advice was for the adoption of open-door policies at one stroke, euphemistically called the ‘big bang approach. Strong support for such policies was also extended by the World Bank, which spoke of the merits of phasing out quantitative restrictions rapidly and reducing tariffs to reasonably low and uniform levels, such as a range of 15-25 percent. Further, the World Bank favored. 

The Government of India undertook trade liberalization through steep reductions in tariffs. Thus, India’s simple average of import tariffs was reduced from nearly 82 percent in 1990 to 56 percent in 1992, while its trade-weighted tariffs came down from nearly 50 percent to 28 percent. The Tax Reforms Committee headed by Raja Chelliah established in 1991 to draw up a roadmap for reducing import tariffs, proposed that the trade-weighted import tariffs should be reduced to 25 percent by 1995-96, from nearly 50 percent in 1990, which was consistent with the World Bank target.

Interestingly, the government went beyond this target, reducing average trade-weighted tariffs to 23.6 percent in 1996, with the simple average of tariffs at 38.7 percent.

The process of reduction of import tariffs came to a near standstill in the second half of the 1990s. By 2000, the average of trade-weighted tariffs remained at the level of 1996, while the simple average tariffs declined marginally to 33.7 percent. In 1997, the then Finance Minister, P Chidambaram, tried to provide momentum to the trade liberalization agenda by announcing that by the turn of the millennium India’s average tariffs would be brought down to single digits tariffs, comparable to those adopted by the ASEAN members.

Also read: How To Earn Money in Share Market

India’s average import tariffs did not decline to single digits immediately, but the United Front government did take an important step towards lowering tariffs. This it did by signing on to the Information Technology Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and agreeing to eliminate tariffs on a range of electronic products from the turn of the millennium.

India’s trade liberalization pathway was never a smooth affair as tariffs could not be lowered for several important manufacturing industries such as automobiles, and, of course, agriculture. In the Doha Round negotiations in the WTO, India adopted an agnostic view regarding trade liberalization.

Importantly, successive Union governments, irrespective of their political affiliations, have held this view in the multilateral trade negotiations. At the same time, however, they have engaged in negotiating free trade agreements (FTAs) in their efforts to forge strategic partnerships. But in recent years, the officialdom has questioned these agreements, suggesting that trade liberalization via FTAs has not favored India.

Why has India emerged as a reluctant liberalizer after its enthusiastic endorsement of trade liberalization three decades back?

The answer is the lack of competitiveness of Indian enterprises in the global markets. Singh spoke of the need to increase the efficiency and international competitiveness of industrial production of domestic entities, as did his successors, but there was little government support that was crucial for realizing this objective.

Thus, while India’s policymakers aspired to make the economy as open as those in the ASEAN region, they ignored the fact that proactive governments in these countries lent consistent support to a slew of efforts for strengthening their manufacturing sectors. Critical investments in both physical and human infrastructure and building vibrant innovation systems were among the more significant of these. 

Under Singh’s prime ministership, attention was paid for the first time to find ways for improving the dismal state of India’s manufacturing. However, during the period since, strengthening the sinews of the manufacturing sector has not got the expected fillip.



India's GDP growth expected to be 8.8-9% in FY22: Care Ratings

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The agency said the outlook for the Indian economy on almost agency said outlook for the Indian economy on almost all counts in FY22 would look seemingly better than FY21 on account of the negative base effect. 

The country's gross domestic product (GDP) growth is likely to be 8.8 to 9 percent in the current financial year, driven by agriculture and industry sectors, Care Ratings said in a report.

The country's economy had contracted by 7.3 percent in fiscal 2020-21.

The agency said the outlook for the Indian economy on almost all counts in FY22 would look seemingly better than FY21 on account of the negative base effect.

"GDP growth for the year (FY22) is expected to be 8.8-9 percent with GVA (gross value added) growth of 7.8 percent. The main drivers of the economy would be agriculture and industry," the rating agency said in its Economic Outlook for 2021-22.

The services sector will not be able to reach its potential even at 8.2 percent growth as the second lockdown has affected sectors like hotels and restaurants, tourism, retail malls and entertainment, in particular, it said.

While a lot has been done on the supply side by both the RBI and the government, the malaise is on the demand side which has been a problem even before the pandemic, Care Ratings pointed out.

A critical factor this time will be the spending pattern of the rural households, the report said, adding that the monsoon forecast is good and ideally a stable Kharif harvest should bode well for rural incomes.

There could be some pent-up demand which surfaces this time too from urban India, but it may just about maintain the level of last year and not really be a breakthrough.

"Higher consumption should stimulate investments. The crux will be an investment which has a multiplier effect on demand and investment," it said.

The report also said the fiscal deficit for FY22 is projected between Rs 17.38 lakh crore to Rs 17.68 lakh crore.

"For a nominal GDP of Rs 222.9 lakh crore, the increase in quantum of the fiscal deficit would potentially push up the fiscal deficit ratio to 7.8-7.9 percent of GDP," the report said.

It also said the cost of services has increased across all components, which combined with the fuel-led impact would keep CPI (consumer price index-based inflation) elevated at around 6 percent by March-end.

Wholesale price index-based inflation will be in double digits mainly due to the low base effect as well as rising global commodity prices.

"Given the high inflation numbers witnessed so far and our expectation of CPI inflation to remain elevated, it does not look likely that there can be any rate cut at least in the 2021 calendar year," the agency said.

It also expects the non-performing assets (NPAs) of banks to be at 10-10.5 percent for March 2022.

The current account will turn into a deficit this year with a higher trade deficit and stable invisible flows, it said.

"We do expect a deficit of 0.5-1 percent of GDP in FY2021-22," it said. The report further said FPI flows to the country would be lower than last year and be in the region of USD 18-22 billion.

It estimates the country's foreign exchange reserves to be around USD 620-630 billion by March end.

Article Source:- Moneycontrol



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Import duty on masur dal cut to zero; agri infra development cess halved to 10%

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A notification in this regard was tabled in the Rajya Sabha by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman. The Minister said that the basic customs duty has been reduced from 10 percent to nil on lentils (masoor dal) originated in or exported from countries other than the US.

Wheat

The Centre on Monday reduced the import duty on Masur dal to zero and also halved the Agriculture Infrastructure Development Cess on the lentil to 10 per cent, in a bid to boost domestic supply and check rising prices.

A notification in this regard was tabled in the Rajya Sabha by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman. The Minister said that the basic customs duty has been reduced from 10 percent to nil on lentils (masoor dal) originated in or exported from countries other than the US.

Also, the basic customs duty has been reduced from 30 percent to 20 percent on lentils (masoor dal) originating in or exported from the US, she said. Further, the Agriculture Infrastructure Development Cess on lentils (masoor dal) has been reduced from the present rate of 20 percent to 10 percent, she added.

The retail price of masoor dal has increased by 30 percent to Rs 100 per kg now from Rs 70 per kg on April 1, this year, as per the data maintained by the consumer affairs ministry.

India Grains and Pulses Association (IGPA) Vice Chairman Bimal Kothari had early this month said, "India annually needs 25 million tonnes of pulses. But this year, we are expecting a shortage."

The government had introduced the Agriculture Infrastructure and Development Cess (AIDC) on certain items, including petrol, diesel, gold, and some imported agricultural products, this fiscal in a bid to boost agriculture infrastructure.

Article Source:- Moneycontrol

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